TUAN GURUS, RELIGIOUS PREACHING, AND SOCIAL SEGREGATION IN LOMBOK NTB


TUAN GURUS, RELIGIOUS PREACHING,
AND SOCIAL SEGREGATION IN  LOMBOK NTB[1]
Fahrurrozi*
Abstract:
Shifting paradigm and societal labeling towards tuan gurus in Lombok have commonly led to ambiguity and overlap caused by varied contributing factors such as one’s status of tuan gurus, one’s sole teaching activity in the pesantren, madrasahteachers, preachers, teaching religious books in general, and even political interest. There is, then, no wonder there are lots of tuan guruss. Tuan Gurus play key roles in the development of Muslim societies, not only in religious life but also in economic, social, political and cultural ones. There are Tuan Gurus who are actively engaged in particular political parties, Islamic economics, people’s empowerment, cultural activities, and humanitarian reliefs, but there are also those who take distance from “worldly lives”. However, their roles are not measured merely by their direct involvement in various activities, but also by their absent in or even rejection to them. Both their activism and passivism have certain impact on Muslim societies. Morevover, their roles are different from one Muslim society to another.Considering those, this research aims at decribing the epistemology of tuan gurus in the normative ideas and mapping the social realities of tuan gurus label at the societal level. The research employs sociological approach and phenomena analysed with inductive-descriptive analysis. Results show that tuan guruss as religious missionaries should command deep knowledge mastery, have individual  and social piety, be fluent in book reading, organize an education centre, have done the pilgrimage, be socially acceptable, be highly committed to societal issues, posses power, and unique charm, and be well behaved.
Key words: normative, social realities, tuan gurus, categories, reposition, typology, appropriateness.
Introduction
Tuan Guru, on Lombok Sasak ethnic community, was one of the elite figures, the Islamic religious functionaries in positions of honor and become a role model of society. With qualification as a group that has knowledge of Islamic religion, they are recognized as a disseminator and guardian of Islam, especially in upholding Da’wah Islamiyah (religious preaching). Generally the title given by the society to those who already perform the pilgrimage and have a place to give religious teachings of Islam. This title is abbreviated with T.G.H. (Tuan Guru Haji).[2]
Implementation of the mission that has been done by Tuan Guru in Lombok previously showed how the level of social inequality in the distance between the messenger (communicator) and the people who receive the messages of Islam (communicant).
            Throughout its implementation is still an effort to introduce a long time, with no oriented values and contextual order that the message is received it will never be rooted in the community.  Religious Preaching (Da’wah) should be understood as a social transformation efforts planned and programmed, not like filling an empty glass with water, so there needs to be a new paradigm in view into the future development of mission, such as social transformation approach, in addition to others approaches.[3]
In the context of the history, mission of Tuan Guru initially became cultural brokers. In fact, according to a study in Garut, Hiroko Horikoshi provide confirmation that the role of Kyai well as mission interpreters not merely as a cultural broker, but as a power broker (intermediary forces), as well as agents capable of selecting and directing the cultural values that will empower communities. The function of this mediator can also be played to fortify the vulnerable points in the fabric that connects the local system with the overall larger system and often act as intermediary between broker or groups of conflicting, maintaining the dynamics driving the maintenance of community resources required.[4]
            Based on the background problems, the researcher wants to know how a tuan gurus, his preaching and social segregation of tuan guru in Sasaknese perspective.
            Religious leaders-popularly known as tuan gurusholds  a very pivotal role as one of the community developers in Lombok. However,  This pivotal role is questioned for three reasons:
·         The way tuan gurusstatus is claimed: if this is by ascription or by achievement. There seems to be developing phenomena that former achieved status of tuan gurus is shifted to ascribed status.
·         There is a tendency that tuan gurus merely convert (muhâfazhah)  their predecessors’ tradition without further developing it. This hinders religion’s acceleration with dynamics of social changes
·         Behaviour changes: Former tuan guruss empower the marginalized people, current ones tend to make coalition with the elites.
            The debate hence concerns with the history of tuan gurus as a status based on social recognition and social role model.  Every changes which happen will certainly affect their expected roles.
Based on the problems above, researchers will analyze the activity of preaching and communication as Tuan Guru and religious leaders as far as community role models and the effectiveness of preaching creadibility conducted among people with preaching and promote the interaction paradigm of communication as a barometer of success in efforts to create social change in Lombok.  Starting from the assumption that the role of Tuan Guru as community leaders, religious leaders and political figures, very dominant influence in transforming the social order in a positive direction and is more advanced.
NORMATIF CONCEPTS OF ULEMA AND TUAN GURUS IN THE NORMATIVE IDEAS
In the perspective of al-Qur’an (Koran), without intending to modify the already fixed terminology of ulema, there are many terminologies for those who are knowledgeable, namely ulamâ’, ûlil ilmi, arrâsikhûn fi al-ilmi, ahl azzikr, dan ulil al-bâb.[5]The word ulamâ  are referred twice at the al-Quran, in the Sura (Chapter) of as-Syûrâ: 197 dan sura (Chapter)al-Fâthir:  28.  The word ulema a the Sura (Chapter) of al-Syûrâ is referred to the ulema of Bani Israel knowing the revelation of al-Quran to prophet Muhammad. Whilst in the sura (Chapter) of al-Fâthir, the word ulema is referred to call those who are most pious.[6]
            The word ulema which comes from Arabic is the plural form of the word alim which etymologically means ”those who are knowledgebale”, or in another definition, ulema is knowledge experts. At the practical level, ulema tend to connote to the meaning of ”Religious Studies experts”, whilst in the perception of  Islamic society, ulema are not only considered as religious studies experts but also are deeply committed toward moral and societal values.  [7]   
Encylopedia of Islam and the Muslim Worlddefines that linguistically, ulemaare those who possess knowledge or those who are knowledgeable. These are the plural form of the singular alim. This terminology is broadly used to analyse a society’s socioeducational class holders whose task is to analyse religious texts such as al-Qur’an dan al-Hadits [8]Generally, ulema fit the category described in the al-Quran as those who are dedicating and pious, (Q.S. 4: 59) and those who have the authority to interpret the religious teachings due to their deep religious knowledge.[9] 
Further, The Indonesian National Encyclopedia also holds an interesting yet new on the definition of ulema. At the former definition, what is meant by ulema is the scientists, either in the field of religion, humanities, or social sciences. Later, the definition only refers to religion experts. In Indonesia, A number of places have different calls towards ulema such as Kyai(Java), Ajengan (Sunda), Tengku (Aceh), Syeikh (Sumatera Utara/Tapanuli), Buya (Minangkabau), Tuan Guru  (Nusa Tenggara, Kalimantan Selatan dan Kalimantan Tengah).[10]
Sayyid Quthub’s perspective describes that those considered as ulema must possess deep religious studies, be pious, have high involvement with their surrounding, as well as have moral integrity acknowledged by the society.[11]
Al-Ghazali denotes five characters of ulema, namely: abîd: being pious, zahîd: leading a sober life, alîm: possessing religious knowledge, faqîh: possessing societal knowledge, murîd, being oriented to serve without expecting rewards.[12]
 Badaruddin H. Subki analysed that ulema at least follow these criteria:  mastering religious studies (tafaqquh fi al-dîn), and being able to guide their ummat based on knowledge sourced from al-Quran dan al-Hadits, able to do Islamic teachings, able to enlive the prophet’s sunna and able to develop Islam, morally a role model, critically think, actively develop their society to be pious, physically and mentally strong, lead a sober life, trustable,  tawadhu’, humane, mahabbah, sensitive towards the dynamics of changes and able to provide the answers for his followers,  knowledgeable and master some knowledge to be developed and show the attitude of tawaddhu.[13]
Muhammad Baqhir al-Majlisi quotes the statement of Ali bin Abi Thalib who divides ulema into three main groups. The first group is the educated people who like to show off and debate. When they put forward their opinions, their offensive way frequently hurts others. At public, they pretend to be very pious and make an image of being wara’. The second group is the educated people who like to seek for economical benefits. They like to cheat and feel like to serve the rich, expecting that they get something in return. In fact, this typical group do not care about the rich’ misleading understanding on religion.  The third group is the educated people whose creativity and idealism are high, deepen their logic and knowledge, but find their life uneasy and heavy. [14]
Those characteristics and definition of ulema  are mainly based on normative criteria. Sociologically, those criteria will certainly face the semantic and applied realities. Hence, questions such as in the recent context of life, who ulema are is emerging as bias and overlapped roles of ulema happen.
In the history of Islamic civilization, ulemain the many parts of the world have shown themselves as the leaders of social and political changes [15]  Such a role is driven by two main factors. The first factor is the fact that ulemahistorically consider themselves as the vocal point of Islamic moral awareness. The second factor is that they dedicate their efforts in the mosques and Islamic schools where people gather and discuss the most recent news and dynamics.[16]Hence they are triggered to take a greater role in solving the happening problems and changes.[17]
In the period of Abbasiyah Dynasty (750-1055), all ulema formally employed by the government were paid making them risky with the government’s pressure. This made their independence lessened. People started to respect them less as they felt curious if the ulema got involved with the bureaucracy. In their simple thought, the ulema’s involvement with the bureaucracy made their dignity (muru’ah) lessened.[18]
The ulema criteria are very ideal. However, this what muslim society believes towards those who have the depth of classical Islamic knowledge (especially fiqh) and conventionally labeled as kyai/tuan gurusin the Indonesian muslimsociety.[19]
Based on the Indonesian Ministryof Religious Affairs, ulema are interpreted with “those who know the greatness of Allah”. Even, Nurcholis Madjid interpret them as scientist-those who are at the top level of piousness, those whose moral, behavior, and ethics are role models for others [20]
Bassam Tibbi, interpret Ulema, who have come to represent a kind muslim clergy-even though islamic doctrine does not recognize a clerical class- do not see themselves as theologians but as lawyers. ‘Alim,  the singular from of ulema, means “scholer” in Arabic. In Islamic History, the ulema were thus the embodiment of Islamic fiqh in its capacity as muslim knowledge par exellence.[21]  
The distinctive yet holistic characteristic of the role and function of ulema in the Islamic society, especially Indonesia, can be seen from their roles and functions at the process of Islamization. Ulema are religious missionaries. They maintain religious affairs at the Islamic system where it is traditionally kept in the middle rural societies producing the cadres of ulema and taking the responsibility in keeping the Islamic orthodoxy. They always connected to their mosque where they act as a prayer leader and Friday prayer preacher. They also manage their Islamic broading school where all students and rural residents gather to learn and recite al-Qur’an and listen to ulema’s preaching and where students in majority live together in simplicity.[22]
However, the sociological realities show the diversity happening towards ulema. They can be further categorized into three big categories: independent ulema, religious officials, and Islamic organization leaders.  Each of them has their own characteristics, coverage, and different path of recruitment. ”Independent ulema” usually manages centres of education such as pesantren, madrasah, or majelis talim. Their scholarship is much relied upon the societal recognition, acompanied by their genealogical based legitimacy.   There is normally no certain clear border to determine this typical ulema’s influence. Their influence is not only based on how deep their knowledge and how far their piousness but also how well they are connected to the sub Islamic communities in the chain of teachers and students at the Islamic boarding schools. [23]
Different with independent ulema, religious officials are those whose ligitimacy is based on the authority’s selection. The difference between the independent ulema and the religious officials frequently bring them to the conflict situation. At the colonization era, The Dutch government took the advantage of such a conflict to control the religious schools and Islamic boarding schools. As the religious officials are selected by the authority, their influence is limited to where they are assigned.[24]
The third category falls under those whose career is trough Islamic organizations. A number of them has the capacity as ulema, whilst the rest does not, but only have concerns and Islamic ideas. The ulema’s qualification from this category is not a central issue as they are more interested in how to articulate the ummah’s aspiration to the national context. Hence, they are more potential to be national level leaders than Islamic boarding school ulema who are stronger in their local community.  These three typical categories however, sometimes overlaps as there are a number of ulemawho are catively involved in the three categories.[25]
The Islamic ulemaplurality can also be analysed from its theological understanding pattern. There is a number of ulema who state that they are the followers of ahlussunnah wa al-jama’ah, whilst the rest does not follow any stream. There is also the classification of non mystical and mystical streams, stream of mu’tabarah (readable) and ghair mu’tabarah (unreadeable)as well as those specifically classifying themselves as Islamic magic religion or self defence based ulema.[26]
The ulema labelling is not by ascription not by education achievement. This label is acknowledged by the muslim society due to services and influences made by the prospective person. For example, a kyai at the society is degraded down to a religious teacher (ustadz) as his social and religious functions degrade or because he loses a trust or he is mentally defected.[27]The ulema’s individual quality which exceeds the society’s knowledge and skills to run social development is a crucial point to gain strength, influence, as well as their position acknowledgement at the society. [28]
Ali Musthafa Ya’qub states that ulemacan be categorized minimally under five criteria to be those who have got the prophecy legacy[29] : First, to posses Islamic knowledge. It means they do not only use it for personal uses but also dedicate them for others, at least able to answer religious questions asked.  The prophet legacy only goes to the experts of Islamic religion or in a simpler indicator it goes to those who understand al-Qur’an and al-Hadith. Other intelectuals such as forestry experts can claim themselves as ulema in the field of forestry.However the label ulema in this sense is limited to linguistic labelling (lughatan), but not to the terminology of ulema as those who have got the prophecy legacy.[30] Second, to be khasyah towards Allah (being deeply pious towards Allah). Third to be zuhud dan oriented to think of the life hereafter. Fourth, To get invloved with grassroot level society, Fifth, To be at the age of fourty as this is considered as the period where human has enough stability. This is considered as a secret why all prophets-except the Prophet of Isa, are selected as prophets at the age of fourty. [31]
REPOSITION OF TERMINOLOGY OF TUAN GURUS  AS ULEMA
The term tuan gurus developed amongst Lombok society is identical with the term kyai haji developed in Indonesian Islamic society, especially in Java region. They are prominent figures of Islam perceived as experts in all aspects of Islamic teachings, including Arabic language with all its branches, even though that kind of perception is invalid and pleonastic. Not all today’s tuan gurus have learnt all kind of islamic teachings, either in holy land of Mecca or in Indonesia for a significant period of time necessary to equip themselves to be ideal tuan gurus. Among them there are many tuan gurus who actually do not deserve the title tuan gurus, but because of their charisma or the charisma of their predecessors, the society calls them tuan gurus and make them role models. Apart from all of those reasons, tuan gurus have been successful in acculturating Islamic values into Sasaknese system of culture. It is usually supported by few elite power at grass root or middle-up levels.[32]
In Indonesian context, tuan gurusare equivalent with kyai in Javanesse society. Equating these two categories is based on several equivalent criteria that can found in both terms though there is also a clear distinction for the usage of title of kyai in Lombok society.[33]
In the terminology of Sasaknese society of Lombok, Asnawi identifies criteria of tuan gurusas one of many groups of elite figures that possess honorable position and as role models for society. Having been qualified as a goup of elite expert on Islamic knowledge, they are claimed to be the disseminators and guardians of Islamic teachings, especially when it comes to performing islamic teaching and religious preaching (amar ma’ruf nahi mungkar).[34]
Different in perception and naming of Sasaknese people towards kyai, they perceive the title kyai not as the Javanesse society perceives it. The term kyai in the perspective of Sasaknese society of Lombok ranges from those who are officials of marriage to those who are invited to religious accasions such as a marriage ceremony, mention of God (tahlilan) or thank full to God (syukuran)(roah: Sasaknese). All of them who attend such ceremonies is given the title of kyai by the Sasaknese society itself; kyai as people invited to a roahan ceremony (syukuran).[35]
Ahmad Abd. Syakur explains the word kyaiused in Lombok island as multi-interpretative terms. First, kyai is a prominent figure that masters wide range of Islamic knowledge. Second, kyaiis those who are frequently invited to religious ceremony such as kendurenand other ceremony related to death, marriage and et cetera. In East Lombok district, especially in subdistrict of Pancor, the kyai invited to lead such religious prayer in kenduren ceremony is called kyai tuan. The word tuan refers to those who have performed the pilgrimage. Third, among Wetu TeluIslamic community members, the word kyaiis a name for their religious leaders, playing the role of Messiah that connect its members to god.[36]
The legality of term tuan gurus is an important thing to re-emphasize, for the recent Sasaknese people of Lombok are challenged with blurred understanding of whom and how should they characterize their role models of those so called Tuan Guru Haji.
Nowadays, problems concerning the educational process and requirement to be tuan gurus are shifting, whether basics of acknowledgement of general society is not changed yet. People who have possessed expertise of  knowledge of Islam and other requirements to be ulema might change, but the standard used by its society might not.
There are several categories and non-formal requirements often used by society to refer people as tuan gurus, which is equivalent to ulema.[37] Nevertheless, those categories and requirements are changing along with changes in society’s needs.
There are several general criteria to refer people as tuan gurus:
1.    Expertise on religious knowledge
The scopes of Tuan gurus’ influence depend on their expertise of religious knowledge. Therefore, in upper levels such as district level in a wider sense, there are also Tuan gurus who equipped themselves with deep and comprehensive understandings of religious knowledge as well as with wide community network.
2.    Devoutness
Factors of devoutness. al-Ghazali divided ulema into two broad categories. First, Ulema Su’ (wicked) or earthly ulema and ulema ghairu su’ (good). Performance of both of these kinds of ulemais difficult to identify, yet according to Ghazali, this issue dominates the discourse of ulema. This kind of ulema has a deep understanding of religious teachings but they use their knowledge merely to legitimate their power, personal interest and wicked things. Secondly, ulema ghairu su’ (good) that is those who are ascetics and has the element of orthopraxy (piety). In this light, orthopraxy cannot merely be measured according to their religious accessories such as worn-out clothes, heavy prayer beads, or the way they walk. Piety in this sense refers to preference of those ulemato stay and live among society instead of abandon it and find cover in solitude.[38]
The concept of piety and ascetics of ulema is represented in Umar’s word, kunnâ fi annahâr rukbâna, wa fi al-laili ruhbâna, meaning: we are warrior with horse in the day, and pope in the night.[39]Without pretending that what has been explained about pious ulema above, we can conclude that society’s requirements concerning ulemais their expertise in religious knowledge. Society appreciates tuan gurus for their willingness to teach people (ummah) religious teachings, for their prayers, their fastings, and other tradition (sunnah) ceremonies such as reciting al-Qur’an (Koran), etc.
3.    Ascription
The succession of tuan gurus based on familial factors or ancestry, in the sense that someone because of his familial relation to some certain prominent figures possesses special rights and privileges among sasaknese society. Nowadays, this factor has been fading away though it still has significant influences to the succession of tuan gurus based of ancestral factors. Anyone can be a tuan guru as far as the society acknowledges him as so, and anyone can open a pesantren (Islamic boarding School) as far as there are students to teach in that pesantren.
Being tuan gurus based on ancestral factors results in the ownership mechanism of pesantren. The pesantren is likely to be possessed by feudal dynasty of the tuan gurus, resulting in the decreasing of reforming spirit and dynamics of intellectual development of the its recent generation. This “dynasty of tuan gurus” leads to the institutional discontinuity of that pesantrenbecause there is no guaranty that their offspring can run the pesantren as professional as their ancestors can. Theologically, the personal cult of tuan gurus which is identical with dynasty of tuan gurus is forbidden.  A classical system of curricula that needs a lot of teacher eventually demolishes the existence of this “dynasty of tuan gurus”.[40]
4.    Number of Students
Vedenbregt gives limitation of ulema as follow: ancestral factors, expertise on religious matters, number of students, and the way they serve society. Karel A. Streenbrink added another factor to those which had been explained previously, that is “principal of revelation”, or ulema as mediator of revelation.[41]
5.    Expert on reading Kitab Kuning.(Islamic Heritate of Books)[42]
Phenomena in the middle of society related to question such as who deserve the title tuan gurus are easy and feasible. In fact, those tuan gurus essentially are equivalent with ulema or kyai that they have to understand the source of religious teachings, Qur’an and Hadist and Arabic literature of classics ulema.[43]
Fitting the requirements to be tuan gurus is necessary as they need the skill to answer their ummah’s question concerning religious matter such as sharia(syari’ah: fiqh), able to answer such questions based on original references, some books of previous ulema. In addition, according to the code of Lukman Hakim, people who deserve to bear the title tuan gurus are limited to those who had lived in the holy land of Mecca, Egypt and Madina. The time they went back to their origin, they started to spread the teaching of Islam, therefore, they are likely to deserve the title tuan gurus.[44]
RELIGIOUS PREACHING OF TUAN GURU IN LOMBOK
Religious Preaching (Da’wah) should be understood as an activity involving a process of transformation and change (thathawwur wa taghayyur) who did not just happen but requires awareness of the people to change their circumstances through education and ongoing communication, this means strongly associated with social engineering efforts (taghyirul ijtima’iyyah). The main goal is the establishment of a mission of social order in which a group of people living with peace, justice, harmony between the existing diversity, which reflects the Islamic side as rahmatan li al-alamin.[45]
            Transformation of Da’wa occurs in the missionary of Tuan Guru in an effort to respond to situations and conditions develop. Social transformation is the creation of economic relations, political, cultural, and basic environmental and better. In this case, the transformation is considered as one model or alternative forms of social change, which is the main goal of any social movement.[46]
Transformatif’s Da’wa undertaken by Tuan Guru in Lombok at least, has turned the concept of mission which includes:
First, the material aspects of mission, from the aspect of material presented was a change, i.e. from the material ‘to ukhrâwi ubudiyah or materials that are social mission. In this context, preachers are required to extend the problem of social issues that occur in society and the social pathologies such as corruption, collusion, nepotism, oppression, human rights violations (Human Rights) and others.[47]
Second, the change of preachingmaterial exclusive to inclusive preaching material, where preachers are required to remove disparaging or hostile nature of non-Muslims, because the trend over time, preachers often deliver a hostile mission with other religions. Acceptance of preaching the message coupled with a critical attitude assessment; whether Islam ‘in line with what has been owned or’ conflict ‘diametrically. Mission here confronted with the choice can sometimes obscure the message itself. Sengkritisme, either in the form of old and new preachers in the policy regarding this issue.[48]
Third, methodological aspects, mission change from monologue to dialogue. Missionary approach will provoke active dialogue to participate in social change religious dimensions. If Tuan Guru only rely on the monologue approach, the mission is only able to remove the spiritual thirst, not to change the understanding, attitudes and social behavior.[49]
Fourth, the institution is an important indicator to smooth the way of change. The transformative power of preachingnot only on the preachers themselves, but also the institutional base that has, so that the preachers have the bargaining position (bargaining power) high against the state and society. [50]
Fifth, There is the form of partiality in the mustad’afîn (the weak and the oppressed). The preacher, to make social efforts for the benefit of the oppressed in the region, as in the case of land evictions, environmental pollution, the fate of fishermen and farmers, or other cases.
Sixth, Tuan Guru coaching and mentoring even advocate and community organizing to cases and social problems. The bottom line is more targeted on the spread of Islam in a social system, whether it comes to values and norms prevailing in society and the relationship existing social organizations.[51]
Discussing the position of Tuan Guruin the midst of local traditions, can be seen from two sides of social communication, which is maintaining the traditions of good and traditions islamize bad religion spectacles according to the Tuan Gurus both understand and adopt the traditions of modernity that relevant to community conditions and do not deviate from the norms of religion and society. Two positions are on the agenda is important for the Tuan Gurus in running their missionary activities, both in the micro and macro scale.
Macro, always preaching the existence of touch with reality surrounding them. In a historical perspective, the struggle of Islam in socio-cultural realities find two possibilities. First, the message of Islam can provide out-put (result, effect) on the environment, in the sense of giving a philosophical basis, direction, encouragement, and guidance for community change until the formation of new social realities. Second, the message of Islam is influenced by changes in society in the sense of existence, the style and direction. This means that the actualization of The “da’wah”is determined by socio-cultural system. In this second possibility, mission systems can be static or dynamic levels there is almost no means for socio-cultural change.
Strategic position held by the figure of Tuan Gurus in interacting with local culture, can be analyzed from the five important aspects;
First, tuan guru as liaison between the great tradition with the little tradition. This means that the Tuan Guruas an explanation of the great religious and cultural tradition as a little tradition.
Second, Tuan Gurus as explanatory and providers of public understanding of orthodoxy and hiterodoxy. The point is the Tuan Guru to explain the problems releated with what is in the sacred texts, puritanism, by explaining the issues that have mingled the sacred with the issue of tradition, or the things that considered heresy.
Third, the Tuan Gurus serve as agents to co-existence of the various cultures that live side by side in order to uphold the image of Islam ideality. This means that religious integration is likely to co-existence, in the sense that the culture and traditions intact, and communities live side by side with the religious teachings, while the religious functions to co-existance, rather than integrate, which integrate into the religious culture, will affect the resistance of sociological community, as well as their diversity.
Fourth, the Tuan Guru in charge to explain the cultural divergence. Occurrence of acculturation of Islamic values in the Sasak culture in fact is inseparable from the role of agents of cultural reform that consists of community leaders, both formal and non-formal .
Fifth, the Tuan Guru in charge of verification variant of the local sentiment with other sentiment. Its purpose is to attempt to give the demarcation line between the norm with the aplication.
Basically the mission models can be done by the Tuan Gurus in three ways:
First, al-Da’wah bi al-Lisan, missionary of this model characterizes the present mission. In remote villages in Lombok, in particular, vivid study conducted majelis ta’lim. Even for verbal preaching, optimizes this rhetoric, not rare speech exercises, starting from the techniques, methods, style, intonation and so forth. This is obviously very good, at least this verbal mission still needs to be applied in each majelis ta’lim especially the guided directly by the Tuan Gurus.
Second, al-Da’wah bi al-Hal, preachingby example and model and are directly applicable, or more appropriately called a model of transformative mission, which is oriented to empowerment, mentoring, etc. This mission is the model most effective  mission and become a transformative mission characteristics.  al-Da’wah bi al-Hal it is very effective because people are easy to imitate what he saw, rather than what is heard and read.
Third, al-Da’wah bi al-Qalam, preaching through writing. Such a model is quite effective, although still very few among the preachers, especially in Lombok, which use preaching like this model. The “da’wah”is usually done by those who have special abilities.[52]
The “da’wah” of Tuan Gurus in essence is the process to increase public awareness, to change from one bad situation to a better condition. Such missionary call motivation mission of da’wah (tasyji’). The da’wah is at its efforts to develop an atmosphere that encourages grace and peace to the universe is an invitation or a call to create a peaceful and serene atmosphere with coolness.
Tuan Gurus are also human beings, the individual and social dimension as well. As social beings, the Tuan Gurus in touch and interact with their social environment. In dealing with the environment, Tuan Guru did knowingly and voluntarily and in accordance with the motives and desires. This action is called Weber’s perspective as a social act.[53]
TUAN GURU ‘S LEADERSHIP IN CREATING  RELIGIOUS PREACHING.
            Tuan Gurus as religious functionaries is the person or persons who perform leadership functions of religion; lead and direct the religious adherent; often not only in matters of religion (sacred) as faith (theology), worship, rituals, and so forth, but also in matters that are more profane
aspect.[54]
The position of Tuan Guru as a figure of the clergy in society, has gained trust and has been recognized as a leader, generally non-formal, often exceeding their authority leaders formally, they are generally respected, obeyed, and also loved.
There are several aspects that make up the leadership of Tuan Guru as a religious figure in the life of the community.
First, the intellectual aspect, the personality behind the clergy. These aspects include the criteria for the clergy, in the form of mastery of the religious sciences of Islam, the public recognition, personal characteristics reflected in the confess of  morality and genealogical relationships in which the pesantren‘stradition in this case is still strong.
Second, functional aspects, which relate to the real role of Tuan Guru in concrete in the life of the community. Tuan Guru leadership functions generally have three main properties, First, solemnization leading worship (ritual) religious. Second, a place to ask for the community in many ways (such as family life, safety and treatment). Third, a role model in social behavior (qudwah hasanah).
Third, aspects of social status, whether they are universal and factual status which each lived.
Fourth, aspects of kinship, which form a network of inter-family leadership scholar/Tuan Guru. Develop scientific knowledge of transmission of tradition and intellectual transmission chain between the Tuan Guru and his family.
Leadership of Tuan Guru in Lombok showed that transformational leadership is not only Tuan Gurus based on the need for self-esteem, but growing awareness of the leadership to do the best according to the study of management and leadership development that sees man, performance, and growth is the most influential. Thus it can be said that a leader in behavior is influenced by at least four factors that background. First, family factors that directly or indirectly, has the inherent. Second, the educational background is very influential in the mindset, the pattern of attitudes, and behavior. Third, experience and influence policy actions. These four communities surrounding environment will determine the direction that must be role.
Tuan gurus function is manifested in four forms of leadership, namely, first, the leader of the community (community leader), if the leadership shown in community organizations or political organizations. Second, scientific leaders (intellectual leader), if the study is shown in the leadership or as preachers. Third, the leadership of spirituality (spiritual leader), if displayed in worship activities, such as priests and preachers in mosques or as teachers. Fourth, the administrative leaders (administrative leader), if the role of educational institutions with the management of modern organized. The fourth form of leadership at the top can be realized separately on their own, but can also be combined in a Tuan Guru /scholar, in the capacity and different intensities.
SOCIETY’S PERCEPTION ABOUT CATEGORY OF TUAN GURUS
According to the perspective of Lombok society, tuan gurus has been identified as honoured men due to their expertise and experience in advocating the interests of their community. In addition, charisma possessed by tuan gurus is another honourable title given to them by the society itself.[55]
Darmawansyah’s opinion about the nomenclature of tuan gurus based on society’s perspective defines tuan gurus as individuals who possessed wide and comprehensive understanding of religious matter as well as those who are able to apply such understanding. Tuan gurus are also perceived as those whose behaviour is laudible and bring within them personal quality that differentiate them from common people.[56]
Asnawi explains that tuan gurus are officials of Islamic religious affairs who has charismatic power over Sasaknese ethnic. The title of tuan gurus is given by Sasaknese society to those who had performed pilgrimage of hajj and have a place for teaching Islamic teachings such as majlis ta’lim and so on. The acronym of tuan gurus is T. G. H. (tuan gurus haji).[57]
Mamiq Shohimun Faishal asserts that tuan gurus is a religious title possessed by those who have jamaah(followers) for they are charismatic and having an authoritative bearing in the midst of their community although they are not capable of understanding Islamic classical books and have not performed pilgrim of hajj yet.[58]
The definition mentioned by Haji Lalu Sohimun Faishal is slightly different with the definition given by the common society of Sasaknese, that tuan gurus must be those who had performed pilgrim of hajj for the extension of that title is an implication of the word haji (al-Haj: Arab) which in Sasaknese language known as tuan. For example bapak tuan (read: Sasak), meaning: a man who had performed pilgrim of hajj. The Songkok tuan (read: Sasak) can simply be translated into Indonesian as peci haji or the Hat of Hajj. The most essential characteristic of Sasak people is the existence of tuan gurus among them. Fundamentally, tuan gurus is the title given by the society to those who master Islamic religious teachings. Apart from assumptions that tuan gurus is a sacred title, the title tuan gurus itself is originated to pondok pesantren. [59]
Other opinion about tuan gurus is explained by Dr. TGH. M. Zainul Majdi, MA who said that tuan gurus is a prominent figure who is central to the religious affairs of society, therefore, the tuan gurus’s capability must be high, especially his capability in terms of understandings over Arabic literature of classics Islamic texts. With their expertise over those religious discourse, one will deserve the title tuan guruseven though in fact the title can also be given easily to anyone in the community. [60]
More simple definition is given by TGH. Sibawaihi. He gives limitations to the term tuan gurus as one who has deep sense of devoutness towards Allah (al-Khasyah) as a consequence of his comprehensive understanding of Islamic literature. Having a wide range of Islamic knowledge is not the primary reason to call someone tuan guru, instead, having good attitude and able to play a role model and able to direct his community according to his understanding of religious matter are the primary reasons to call someone tuan guru. Thus, charisma will be revealed by god himself to the tuan gurus. [61]
Such comment is slightly different with the comment given by TGH. L. Anas Hasry who said that tuan gurus must be able to read kitab kuning and behave like an ulema for the ulema has the legacy of the prophets. What this opinion is trying to assert is that the characteristics of the prophet such as siddiq (honest), amânah (trustworthy), tabligh (convey the words of dakwah), fatnah(smart), must be possessed by the good behaving tuan gurus. [62]
Furthermore,TGH. Shafwan Hakim said that the primary requirement to be a tuan gurus is a coherence between knowledge and its application and khasyatullah. This means that an expert on religious teachings and its practical dimensions to be qualified as tuan gurus must be willing to teach those who need religious guidance. Another qualification to be tuan gurus based on TGH. Shafwan Hakim is he must have performed pilgrim of hajj. [63]
Amaq Mariani explain that tuan gurus are one who had performed pilgrim of hajj so their people call him tuan aji. That man then actively teaches his people about religious matter so their people put him as role model. It is not a major issue whether he has a deep understanding of religious teachings or not for the most important thing to consider is the acknowledgement of his people concerning his social stratum.[64]
H. Sahri Ramadhan reveals that his concept of tuan gurusstated that tuan gurus must be referred to and put as model absolutely due to his comprehensive understandings of Islamic literature. The tuan gurusis also a guidance of his society where he live through both non-formal and formal education. [65]
Inak Sinaref also reveals that her opinion concerning the concept of tuan gurus as a man with wisdom that is analog to landlord who has a lot of land. It means that the tuan gurus is an ideal figure to be a role model of the members of his society. [66]
Amiq Ajar states that tuan gurus is a pious man devoted to Allah. The tuan gurus is also a man that has a good conduct so he can direct his people to the right path. [67]
TGH. M. Habib Thantawi elaborates that the concept of tuan gurus as a prominent religious figure refers to those who understand a wide range of Islamic religious teachings based on the right methodology of qur’an and hadist and also have the skill necessary to understand original source of Islamic teachings, al-qur’an and hadist. Moreover, the tuan gurus must have enough students and people to teach in his institution like pondok pesantren. [68]
Chief of Saribaye Village, Sarawan Sukadani, ST, explaines the limitations related to the title of tuan gurus. He stated that tuan gurus must have a comprehensive understanding of Islam and also sensitive to the interest of his people. The tuan gurus should position noble ethics above all and also should have the ability to read Islamic literature from its original sources. [69]
Muhammad Sa’i states that tuan gurus is a prominent figure whose conduct is different significantly from common people due to his charisma, religious knowledge, and position in the society. Tuan gurus are often a leader of pondok pesantren. Criteria mentioned above are ideal, yet sometimes the title tuan gurus convey bias within. It is due to other factors indicating towards the use of the title itself. [70]
Other opinions that have been analyzed by the researcher according to the questionnaire collected from 200 respondents suggested that the concept of tuan gurus related to several following aspects; 1) Personality, charisma, conduct, piety. 2) Capability, intellectuality, intelligence. 3) Capacity; guidance of society, teacher of qur’an, da’i (messiah). 4) Social acknowledgement; legitimacy from society concerning appropriateness to bear the title of tuan gurus.
In essence, the concept of tuan gurus in Lombok society is changing. Previously, it is hard for the society to legitimate someone as tuan gurus. The title tuan gurus will be given only when a person is perceived qualified according to his dedication to the improvement of his society. To deserve the title tuan gurus, a person is required to get involved into societal interaction for a significant period of time. As time passed, the term tuan gurus becomes more feasible. As long as a person can deliver a good speech, have performed pilgrim of hajj, the nowadays Lombok society tend to call that person tuan gurusregardless of his performance concerning the improvement of his society in terms of practical sense.
THE SOCIAL SEGREGATION  OF TUAN GURUS LOMBOK SOCIETY’S SETTING
In Sociology, social strata can be divided into the broad categories, the low end, the middle up and the high class. Social stratification is an ongoing process along with the social, economic, cultural and religious development of local community.[71]
In Islamic context, different social strata among members of society are not major issues. The only thing that differentiates a person is his or her devoutness to the God. In this sense, the more the society appreciate religious norms, the more they are likely to apply those norms in their daily life. The application of those religious norms and values is the primary indicator of the level of devoutness to God, known as ‘amalun shalihun’, meaning: the manifestation of a persons’ imanand ihsan towards Allah SWT. [72]
In religiosity contexts, Sasak people in Lombok of West Nusa Tenggara, owned varied of social stratifications. It axis from their understanding toward religion commonly impartial, and depend on the doctrine and though of charismatic figures penetrated their Islamic notion. Commonly, The charismatic figure mentioned as Tuan Guru, Maulana saikh or hadratussaikh.[73]
Simply, The understanding of Sasak people towards Tuan Guru is for those who have done pilgrimage to Mecca, have well or widest understanding towards Islamic law, and well behave, it caused society give a Nobel title tuan guru haji for certain man.
            Generally Tuan guru can be classified in to two terms:
  1. Tuan Guru Dato’ tuan guru toak, tuan guru wayah, tuan guru lingsir, are  senior class of tuan guru, up to 60 ages, the senior tuan guru as good example to follow by all of people, and as prime guider to do everything in daily life.
  2. Tuan Guru  Bajang, under of 40 ages, posses better knowledge mastery of Islamic law and as leader of majelis taklim.
In social life tuan guru divided into several types:
  1. Tuan guru who master the classic books of Islam (fiqh), but limited knowledge textually.
  2. Tuan guru who master the classic books of Islam (fiqh), has widest knowledge and contextual thinking.   
  3. Tuan guru who focus in political interest.
In the last of decade, tuan gurus have varied professions and emerged many types of tuan guru. Fisrt, tuan gurupolitician, is those who tends in political interest and make it as a straggle field. Second, tuan guruentrepreneur, tuan guru who concerned in entrepreneurship and business usual, while as a leader of Islamic boarding school. Third, tuan guru culture observer, is those who concerned in culture and art development and make it as preaching media. Fourth, tuan guruintellectual, is those who focus in intellectual development. 
In Jombang, Endang Turmuzi distinguished kyai into four categories. In Lombok Tuan guru also distinguished into four categories, such as tuan guru pesantren, tuan guru tarekat, tuan guru politic, and tuan guru stage.[74]
Tuan guru pesantren, who focus on education development, teaching and learning process in transforming better human resource.  Tuan guru tarekat, who focus in spiritual building, tuan guru politician, is type of tuan guru who concerned in political interest and make it as effort to develop their institution politically. Tuan guru stage, is famous as preachers, their activities focus on spreading Islamic teaching through dawah activities. This type of tuan guru is borderless territory, not only famous in local and in certain communities, but also in other places.[75]
According to the knowledge mastery and territory that owned, tuan guru divide into two categories;
1.    Tuan guru beleq (biggest tuan guru), is social recognition, for those who possess well and widest knowledge in Islamic law and owned the great works read by many people in the world. This recognition base on the influence of knowledge mastery, caused them famous in borderless territory, even local, national and international.
2.    Tuan Guru Kode (small tuan guru), is those who concerns at preaching activities in local territory and limited for small communities, even they have great Knowledge mastery of Islamic teaching.
Sociologically, Those types of tuan guru, exist as diversity of condition, depend on social perspective point of view.[76]
CONCLUTION
The results of this study suggest that Tuan Guru as part of a group of transformative intellectuals, clerics critical role as articulators of the collective consciousness of the ideological struggle emancipators (Amar Ma’ruf) and blocked dehumanization (nahi munkar), then there are four main roles that can be played by the Tuan Gurus in the process of social transformation in Lombok namely, 1) as a catalyst; 2) as a liaison resource (resource linker); 3) as the solution to the problem (solution giver); and 4) as a pacemaker process (process helper).
As liaison sources, Tuan Gurus work to bring the client system that is ready for change with a possible resource. For the necessary changes in society that agents can find and exploit to the maximum extent possible the existing resources within and outside the client system, the form of funds, knowledge, problem solving, time, energy or motivation. As a solution provider, Tuan Guru initiative provides how to make changes. Not a few people, organizations, or who want change and reform but they have limitations on how the reform ideas that should be done because the agent who acted as reform solution providers. As hyper process, Tuan Guru function provides immediate impetus for the changes began at an individual or social system. The process needs to be done for social change to happen is to show clients how to recognize and define the needs, diagnose problems and set goals, find the relevant resources and efforts to solve the creating problem.
Access from Tuan Gurus in the mission of social change in the balance point of the social, the conditions that must be met in order for a society to work properly, in the sense that the social balance or social “equilibrium”, is a situation where all the major social institutions function and mutual support. In this state every citizen can have inner peace because there is no conflict of norms and values in society.
In the process of social transformation undertaken by the Tuan Guru with the mission to promote transformative approach as a paradigm that provides space and opportunity to the people involved in their own problems to define and articulate social problems they face and provide opportunities for every individual of society into “human agency “under each condition.  
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            [1] This paper is presented at the third joint conference on tuan gurus, religious preaching, and social segregation in  Lombok NTB, held by the Faculty of Humanities, Georg August University of Gottingen and the Faculty of Da’wa and Communication, State Islamic Institute of Mataram, Gottingen, Germany, 3-4 June 2014.
            *Fahrurrozi is Lecturer in Islamic Communication, da’wa and sociology at Faculty of Dawah and CommunicationIstitute of Islamic State MataramNTB, Jln. Pendidikan No. 35 Mataram, Email: roziqi_iain@yahoo.co.id.HP.081 803 669 310.
            [2]Asnawi, Agama dan Paradigma Sosial: Menyingkap Pemahaman Masyarakat Sasak Tentang Taqdir Allah Dan Kematian Bayi, (Jakarta: Sentra Media, 2006), Edisi Revisi, cet. 1.h.23. Muh. Noer, dkk, Visi Kebangsaan Religius: Refleksi Pemikiran dan Perjuangan TGKH Muhammad Zaenuddin Abdul Madjid 1904-1997, (Jakarta: Logos Wacana Ilmu, 2004, 1th edition,. Baharuddin, Nahdltul Wathan dan Perubahan Sosial, (Yogyakarta: Panteon Press, 2007. Ahmad Abd. Syakur, Islam dan Kebudayaan: Akulturasi Nilai-nilai Islam dalam Budaya Sasak, (Yogyakarta: Adab Press, 2006), 1th edition. Fahrurrozi, Sejarah Perjuangan dan Pergerakan Dakwah TGH.M. Mutawalli di Pulau Lombok: Pendekatan Kultural dan Sufistik dalam Mengislamisasi Masyarakat Wetu Telu, (Jakarta: Sentra Media, 2006). Nasri Anggara, Politik Tuan Guru: Sketsa Biografi TGH.Lalu Muhammad Faisal dan Perannya Mengembangkan NU di Lombok, (Yogyakarta: Genta Press, 2008), Cet. 1.H.Lalu Muhammad Azhar, H. Lalu Muhammad Shaleh Tsalis, Tuan Guru Lopan: Waliyullah dengan Kiprah dan Karamahnya, (Mataram: Yayasan Pondok Pesantren As-Shalehiyyah, 2003).  
            [3]S.N. Eisenstadt,  Revolution and Transformation of Societies, (New York: The Free Press, 1978). Cet. 1. p. 50. See too to Indonesian Edition, S. N. Eisenstadt,  Revolusi Dan Transformasi Masyarakat,  Penerj. Chandra Johan,  (Jakarta: Rajawali, 1986), Cet. 1. .143.Clifford Geertz, ”The Javanese Kiai, The Changing Role of Cultural Broker” in Comparative Studies In Society And History, vol. 2. Clifford Geertz, The Javaanese Kijaji: The Changing Roles Of A Cultural Broker, dalam Comparative Studies In Society And History, 1960 . see too, Clifford Geertz,  The Religion Of Java, (New York: The free Press of Glencoe, 1960)
[4] Hiroko Horikoshi, A Tradisional Leader in a Time of Change: The Kijaji and Ulema in West Java, (USA: Urbana-Champaign, 1976). A Thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Anthropology in Graduate College of University of Illinois. See also, Paulo Alman, Revolutionary Social Transformation: Democratic Hopes, Political Possibilities, and Critical Education, (London: Bergin & Garvey, 2001), Second Edition, h.1  Authentic social transformation is never a sudden even. It is process through which people change not only their circumstances but themselves and social transformation involve  levels of human existence. 
[5]The word ulema is the plural form of  ‘âlim,  derived from the word ‘alima – those who know very clearly. Hence, all of words formed with alphabets of  ‘ain, lam, mim, always refer to the meaning of clarity, such as ‘a’lam(flag), ‘âlam (universe, feeling or intelligence based creatures), alâmah(address), as analysed in M. Quraish Shihab, Tafsir al-Misbah Pesan-pesan dan Keserasian al-Qur’an (Jakarta: Lentera Hati, 2002) cet. 1. 466.  
[6]M. Dawam Raharjo, Ensiklopedi al-Quran Tafsir Sosial Berdasarkan Konsep-Konsep Kunci (Jakarta: Paramadina, 1996) 688.
[7]Muhammad Thalhah Hasan, Islam dalam Perspektif Sosio Kultural (Jakarta: Lantabora Press, 2000),  2nd ed.187.
[8]Richard C. Marthin, Encylopedia of Islam and The Muslim World (USA: MacMillan Reference, Thomson Glate, cet. V. Vol. 2-M-Z, index, 703-705. Ulema: literally “those who have knowledge” or those who know”, singular ‘alim, plural Ulema’. The term is most widely used to refer to the scholary class of muslim societies, whose main occupation is the study of the texts that make up the Islamic tradition religious sciences such as Quran, hadits.
[9] Jajat Burhanuddin, The Fragmentation of Religious Authority: Islamic Print Media in Early 20thCentury Indonesia, dalam Studia Islamika, Volume II, Number, 1.23.
[10] M.Dawam Raharjo, Ensiklopedi, 689.
[11] Sayyid Quthub, Tafsir Fi Zhilal al-Qur’an (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1416), 1stpublication..56. 
[12]Hujjatul Islam Abu Hamid al-Gazhali, Ihya’ Ulum al-Din (Cairo: Dar al-Kutub al-Mishriyyah, 1413), 1stpublication, Juz. 1. 68.
  [13]Badarudin H Subki, Dilema Ulema’ dalam Perubahan Zaman(Jakarta: Pelita, 1995) 47.
            [14]Syaikh Muhammad Baqir al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar al-Jami’ah li Durar Akhbar al-A’immah al-Athar, Juz II,) Beirut: Dar Ihya’ al-Turast al-Arabi, tt. 46-47.
[15]Hamid Al-Gar, Religion and State in Iran: The Role of the Ulema’ in the Qajar Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969)11.
[16] Gabriel Baer, The Ulema’ in Modern History: Asian African Studies. Vol. 7 (Jerusalem: Israel Oriental Society, 1971) 12.
[17]Nur Yalman, Some Observations on Secularism in Islam: The Cultural Revolution in Turkey (Deadales: Winter 1973, Post Traditional Societies: 139.
[18] Ibn Abbas in a story states that ulema are people who believe in God, make a clear borders on what  God says as halal and haram, keep God’s instruction, and feel sure to meet God. Whilst Ibn Katsir states that ulema are those who are deeply pious so that they are very dedicated to God (refer to Musthafa al-Maraghi, Tafsir al-Maraghi (Beirut: Dar al-Ma’arif, 1418) Juz. 3. 553.
[19] In Indonesian, ulema means those who are experts in Islamic religious studies (Please refer to the dictionary of Bahasa Indonesia, 3rd edition, (Jakarta: Balai Pustaka, 2002), 2nd publication.1239.
[20]Nurcholis Madjid, Tradisi Islam Peran dan Fungsi dalam Pembangunan di Indonesia (Jakarta: Paramadina, 1997) 33.
            [21] Bassam Tibi, Islam and the Cultural Accomodation of Social Change, translated by Clare Krojzl, USA: Westview Press, 1990) p.40-41
[22]Hiroko Horikoshi, A Tradisional Leader in a Time of Change: The Kijaji and Ulema in West Java(USA: Urbana-Champaign, 1976). A Thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Anthropology in Graduate College of University of Illinois.35.
[23]Muchtar Buchari, Nurcholis Madjid, Taufiq Abdullah, Muslim Abdurrahman, Pandangan & Sikap Hidup Ulema: Acuan Penelitian, in the Journal of  Nadhar Buletin Tak Berkala Penelitian Agama dan Masyarakat, Seri 1 Juli 1986. 7.
[24]Muchtar Buchari, Nurcholis Madjid, Taufiq Abdullah, Muslim Abdurrahman, Pandangan. 7.
[25] Muchtar Buchari,Dkk., Pandangan.8.
[26]Muchtar Buchari,Dkk., Pandangan, 8.
[27]Zamakhsyari, Tradisi Pesantren: Studi Tentang Pandangan Hidup Kyai (Jakarta: LP3ES, 1993) 44.
[28]Multiple discourses have long existed side by side in the  world of the ulema ; and in respect egain, the modern ulema’ are often not altogether different from their precursors. (Muhammad Qasim Zaman, The Ulema’ in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2002, cet.1. 187). The  ulema see every where only injustice, conspiracy, and affliction, but not the new opportunities that are aqually the product of transformations of modernity. (Muhammad Qasim Zaman, The Ulema’, 181).
[29] Please refer to Ibnu Majah, Sunan Ibnu Majah, in a hadith story, Ulema are thoes who inherit the prophecy legacy. Prophets are queath money to their followers but knowledge.
[30] Ali Musthafa Ya’qub, Islam Masa Kini (Jakarta: Pustaka Firdaus, 2001), 1st publication.118.
[31] Ali Musthafa Ya’qub, Islam., 119-122.
            [32]Ahmad Abd Syakur, Islam, 83.
  [33]Dawam Raharjo’s explanation concerning the use of the title kyai among Javanesse people suggests that the title is equivalent with ulema in Islamic nomenclature. The word kyai is popular especially among general society. This word refer to those who have been stated in the Holy Book as pious servant of God (Q. S. Fathir: 28) and they also have the legacy of the prophets (Narated by Turmuzi) See M. Dawam Raharjo, Ensiklopedia al-Qur’an Tafsir Sosial Berdasarkan Konsep-konsep Kunci, (Jakarta: Paramadina, 1996), 691.
          [34]Asnawi, Agama dan Paradigma Sosial: Menyingkap Pemahaman Masyarakat Sasak Tentang Taqdir Allah dan Kematian Bayi (Jakarta: Sentra Media, 2006), 1stPub. 12.
            [35] In “Sasak society”, there is no difference between Menak (ningrat: Javanesse) including Lalu, Lale, baiq, Mamiq,and Jajar Karang (average people). They are all united in one Sasaknese bound. Those variations of social strata are now started to mix through the process of acculturation. Gap between each stratum, therefore, became closer so members of those social strata have no problem of socialization issue. (See Asnawi, Agama dan Paradigma Sosial: Menyingkap Pemahaman Masyarakat Sasak Tentang Takdir Allah dan Kematian Bayi (Jakarta: Sentra Media, 2006) 1stPub. 11
            [36]Ahmad Abd. Syakur, Islam, 82.
[37] The equivalence between Tuan gurus and Ulema is due to several aspects such as their good understanding of religious matter, willingness to improve their community, unpretentious manner, khasyatullah (fear of Allah/believe that Allah sees them), and other conducts of Ulema that characterize the title tuan gurus itself.]
[38]Ghazali stated that aspects of Ulema can be divided into three categories; First, those who destroy themselves and other people by pursuing material happiness. Second, those who save themsleves and other people by calling the to the right path. Third, those who save other people but destroy themselves, they call people to the right things but they themself dont do. All they want to do is to pursue wealth and position in life. See, Imam Al-Ghazali, Ihya’ Ulum al-Din,(Beirut: Darul Ma’arif, 1415 H) 2nd Ed, 2nd Pub. 37.
[39]Abu Hamid AL-Gazaly, Bidayatul, 68
  [40] In many cases about pesantren in Lombok. When the inisiator of the pesantren has passed away, the pesantren  is vulnerable of vacum of power because there is no one of the tuan gurus’s offspring are capable of running the pesantren effectively. Nevertheless, many tuan gurus’s offspring in Lombok, even though they are not capable of running pesantren, run the pesantren just because they are the offspring of the tuan gurus. It is supported by the trend that society will perceive the offspring of tuan gurus that has passed away as tuan gurus.
[41]Karel A. Streenbrink, Pesantren, Madrasah, Sekolah (Jakarta: LP3S,1987) 1st Pub.,109-110.
[42]Books written in arabic but without harakat. Pesantren community usually call term kitab kuning. The term of kitab kuning is identical with the term Arabic books of Bald book. To pesantren community, the term bald books is a familiar concept. According to them, kitab kuning has always been connotated with book written by islamic scholars in classics era or contemporary books that convey classiscs ideas. People outside the pesantren community are usually unfamiliar with the term kitab kuning. (See. Al Musthafa Ya’qub, Islam.., 184
[43]There are many  academic preferences concerning the terminology of religious reference books such as syarahal-Qur’an and syarah al-Hadist written in Arabic without row. It is common to name those reference books kitab kuning. [….]. seccond, the term international as proposed by Dr. ‘Abd al-Rahman Raf’at Basya when writing the companions of the prophet. He quoted most of his reference from al-kutub al-shofro’ al-qadimah (classics kitab kuning). Thus, the term kitab kuning itself is not only popular in Indonesia but in other muslim countries as well. (See. Ali Musthafa ya’qub, Islam…, 185-186).
  [44]Lukman al-Hakim,(60) Former Rector Islamic State of Mataram, Vice Chief of MUI NTB, Interview, September 11th, 2009.
[45]Moh. Ali Aziz, Rr. Suhartini, A. Halim (Editors), Dakwah Pemberdayaan Masyarakat: Paradigma Aksi Metodologi, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pesantren, 2005), 1th edition, h.26. Bryan S.Turner, Religion and Social Theory, (London: SAGE Publications LTD, 1991), h. 109. Meredith B.McGuire, Religion The Social Context, (USA: Wodsworth Thomson Learning, 2002), h.244.
            [46] Transformative da’wah is a model, which not only rely on verbal preaching (conventional) to provide religious materials to the community, which positions the preachers as a disseminator of religious messages, but to internalize religious messages into real life community by doing direct community assistance. Thus, preachingnot only to strengthen the community aspect of religiosity, but also reinforces the social basis for the realization of social transformation. With a transformative mission, preachers are expected to have dual functions, namely the spread of activities of religious material and conduct community assistance for the issues of corruption, environment, evictions, women’s rights, religious conflict and other humanitarian problems. (Ali Nurdin, Dakwah Transformatif: Pendekatan Dakwah Menuju Masyarakat Muttaqîn, Jurnal Ilmu Dakwah Vol. 8 No.Oktober 2, 2003, pp.24-32. See also, Very Verdiansyah, Islam Emansipatoris: Menafsir Agama untuk Praksis Pembebasan, (Jakarta: P3M, 2004), cet. I. Moeslim Abdurrahman, Islam Transformatif, (Jakarta: Pustaka Firdaus, 1997), 3th ed)
[47]William F. Ogburn, Social Change, (New York: Viking, 1950), 1th edition. p.24. Mansour Fakih,  Masyarakat Sipil Untuk Transformasi Sosial, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 1998),  p. 38.
[48]Andrey Korotayev, Artemy Malkov, and Daria Khaltourina, Introduction to Social Macrodynamics, (Moscow: URSS, 2006.), p. 25.
[49] Moeslim Abdurrahman, Islam Transformatif, (islamic transformative) (Jakarta: Pustaka Firdaus, 1997), 3th edition. p.10.
            [50]Kuntowijoyo, Paradigma Islam: Interpretasi untuk Aksi, (Bandung: Mizan, 1991), 1th edition. h.345. Ali Nurdin, Dakwah Transformatif: Pendekatan Dakwah Menuju Masyarakat Muttaqîn,  Jurnal Ilmu Dakwah Vol. 8 No. Oktober 2, 2003, h.24-32. See too, Very Verdiansyah, Islam Emansipatoris: Menafsir Agama untuk Praksis Pembebasan, (Jakarta: P3M, 2004), Ith Edition, Moeslim Abdurrahman, Islam Transformatif, (Jakarta: Pustaka Firdaus, 1997), 3th edition. Imaduddin Abdurrahman, Islam Pribumi, (Bandung: ITB Salman, 1999), 1th Edition. Syahrin Harahap, Islam Dinamis, (Yogyakarta: Tiara Wacana, 1997)., 1th Edition. p. 25
[51]Muhammad Abd. Fath Al-Bayânûni, al-Madkhal ila Ilmi al-Dakwah, (Beirut: Muassasah al-Risâlah, 1412 H/1991) 1th Edition. p.120. Mustafa Hamdi (Editor), Dakwah Transformatif, (Jakarta: Lakpesdam NU, 2006), 1th edition. p.11. Amrullah Ahmad (Editor),  Dakwah Islam dan Perubahan Sosial, (Yogyakarta: Prima Duta, 1983), 1th edition, p.16.
            [52] Amrullah Ahmad (ed), Dakwah Islam dan Perubahan Sosial, (Yogyakarta: PLP2M,1985),Cet. II. p.2.
            [53] Max Weber, The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, (New York: The Free Press 1966), 357
            [54] The leader: the person responsiblefor the productivity of the employee and the work group. A leader: an individual who influences others to act toward a particular goal or end state. Leadership: the relationshipbetween two or more peoplein which one attempts to influence the other toward the accomplishment of some goal or goals. Leadership: the ability to influencea group toward the achievement of goals (Roy. P. Mottahedeh, Loyalty and Leadership in Early Islamic Society, (Prenciton: Prenciton University Press, 1969), Cet.1.p.137. Lihat juga Anthony Balack, The History of Islamic Political Thought: From The Prophet to The Present, (Edinbugh: Edinbugh University Press, 2001)
  [55]Fahrurrozi, Eksistensi Pondok Pesantren, 54.
  [56]Darmawansyah, Commentator of Politics in NTB, this opinión is quoted from darmawansyah’s explanation on Tuan gurus at TV ONE in October 18th, 2008, in Program Kabar Pagi. It is also supported by Interview, Mataram, November 12nd, 2009.  
              [57]Asnawi (60), Prominent religious figure in Lombok Tengah and academia, alumnae of Doctoral Programme, UIN Jakarta, rector of IAIN Academic year 2006-2010, Interview, June 2nd, 2009.
  [58]Drs. H. L. Shaimun Faishal, MA, (60), Lecturer at IAIN Mataram, Assistant of Dean of Faculty of Dakwah, Board of PWNU in NTB, Leader of Pondok Pesantren in Tanaq Awu, Interview, August 20th, 2009 located in Mataram.
  [59] Dr.H. L. Ahmad Zainuri, (33), Lecturer at Faculty of Dakwah IAIN Mataram, Board of Ponpes Nurul Hakim Kediri, Doctoral student of UIN Jakarta 2008, interview, November 2009 located in Mataram.
            [60]TGH. Zainul Majdi,MA, Governor of NTB 2007-2015, 2013-2018, Board of NW Pancor, Leader of Pondok Pesantren Darunnahdatain NW Pancor, Doctor on Tafsir from University of Al-Azhar Cairo, Interview in Governor Office of NTB, April 14th, 2009.]
            [61]TGH.M. Sibawaihi Mutawalli (65), Interview, September 19th, 2009 in Jerowaru East Lombok.
            [62]TGH.L.Anas Hasry (58), Leader of Pondok Pesantren Darul Abrar Sakra Barat Lotim, Interview, September 20th, 2009 in Montong Kirik Sakra Barat.
            [63]TGH. Shafwan Hakim (65), Leader of Ponpes Nurul Hakim Kediri Lobar, Interview, September 15th, 2009 in Kediri.
            [64]Amaq Mariani, (63), Prominent Figure of Batu Nampar Community, Subdistrict Keruak, East Lombok, Interview, September 11th, 2009.
            [65] H. Sahri Ramadhan (36), Prominent religious figure of Keru Village Narmada, West Lombok, Interview, July 5th, 2009]
            [66]Inak Sinaref, (50), a Fiherman in Tanjung Luar Subdistrict. Keruak  Lotim, Interview, August 9th, 2009.
            [67]Amiq Ajar (58), a farmer in Montong Sapah Village, West Praya Middle Lombok , Interview, September 25th, 2009.
            [68]TGH.M.Habib Thantawi, (67), Leader of Pondok Pesantren Darul Habibi NW Paok Tawah Praya Lombok Tengah, Interview, August 10th, 2009.
            [69]Saribaye Sarawan Sukadani, ST.,(41),Chief of Desa Persiapan Seribaye Lingsar Narmada, Interview,  September 12nd, 2009.
            [70]Muhammad Sa’i,(40), Lecturer at Faculty of Dakwah IAIN  Mataram, Rector of STIT/STAI Nurul Hakim Kediri Lombok Barat, live in Montong Are Lombok Barat,  Interview, October 22nd, 2009.
[71] Devis Kingley, Human Society( New York: The McMillan Company, 1960), 2nd Pub. 35.  
[72] Muhammad Tholchah Hasan, Islam dalam Perspektif Sosio-Kultural (Jakarta: Lantabora Press, 2000) 1stPub, 19.
            [73] Abdul Hayyi Nu’man,Maulanasyeikh TGKH. Muhammad Zainuddin Abdul Madjid: Riwayat Hidup dan Perjuangan, (Mataram: PB NW, 1999, Cet.2. p.175.
            [74] Endang Turmudi, Perselingkuhan Kyai dan Kekuasaan, (Yogyakarta : LKiS, 2003),h.32.
            [75]Abdul Rahman, Guru Ngaji, Masyarakat dan Pemimpin Yang Baik (Menuju Reformasi Kultural), (Jakarta: Lisantara, 2007), cet.1.h.57.
  [76] Fahrurrozi Dahlan, Sejarah Perjuangan dan Pergerakan Dakwah Tuan Guru Haji Muhammad Mutawalli di Lombok: Pendekatan Kultural dan Sufistik dalam Mengislamisasi Masyarakat Wetu Telu,( Jakarta: Sentra Media, 2006), cet.1. h. 1.

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